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2018年12月亚太SAT写作题目解析

2018-12-03 10:18:53 来源:大连新东方 潘淼SAT资料下载

  笔者感觉,这篇阅读材料的难度和10月亚洲卷写作的难度差不多,生词不足以阻碍我们对于文章的理解,也没有复杂的长句,也没有俚语或者熟词僻义。结构上,反而比10月的卷子简单。作者开篇说了大学要砍掉语言教学并表达了自己对于这种做法的批评。第二段到第四段批评了人们之前对于学外语好处的狭隘的理解并给出了学外语在思维上和人格上对于英语学习者的意义。第五段作者回击了另一个错误的想法,他说我们不能觉得全球化导致英语地位的崛起,但会削弱其他语种的地位。作者说,你不好好学其他那些语种,你是会吃亏的。第六段给出了外语学习的另一个好处:让你在学习上不畏艰辛斗志昂扬。粗略的说,就是,第一段引入要讨论的话题:学外语。第二段到第六段讲学外语的好处。第七段总结。是不是特别像OG例文“塑料袋禁令”那篇阅读材料呢?下面我逐段分析。

来源:大连新东方 潘淼

  The Real Reasons to Support Language Study

  By Mauro F. Guillén JULY 27, 2009

  原文地址:https://www.chronicle.com/article/The-Real-Reasons-to-Support/47450

  第一段:In an era of dwindling budgets, universities have identified language programs as an area for possible cuts. Languages with few students are being framed as luxuries that cannot be afforded during a time of scarcity. The target is easy: Language instruction is delivered by nontenured faculty members to a much greater extent than most other subjects are. Some universities have even announced that entire language departments might be eliminated as a way to, euphemistically, realign resource allocation with emerging priorities. There is a fundamental misunderstanding of the role that language learning should play in undergraduate and graduate curricula, which could seriously imperil the ability of the university to educate the students of the 21st century.

  大意:

  作者交代了大学对于语言学习的不重视,并亮出自己的观点:这么做不对。

  值得考生思考并分析的内容:

  The target is easy: Language instruction is delivered by nontenured faculty members to a much greater extent than most other subjects are. 意思是说,大学想削减开支的时候专门挑软柿子捏,因为语言教学部门的老师往往不是长期任职的老师,这些老师好打发。这么写,作者是让读者对于这些大学有一个不好的印象,刻画他们欺软怕硬的嘴脸,这样,读者就更容易不认同大学的做法。

  Some universities have even announced that entire language departments might be eliminated as a way to, euphemistically, realign resource allocation with emerging priorities. 意思是说有的大学砍掉整个语言教学系,美其名曰(euphemistically)是要把资源重新分配。读到“砍掉整个语言教学系”,我们读者可以感受到大学这种做法的荒谬,“美其名曰”这个词,也帮助读者看到这些大学虚伪的一面。

  fundamental misunderstanding和seriously imperil可以体现出作者严厉的批评的口吻。

  本段最后一句话作者提到,大学的这种做法对于培养21世纪所需人才是不利的,我们读者可以感受到,大学这么做的后果是非常言重的,因为这会导致学生无法融入新时代。

  第二段:The conventional wisdom among university administrators is that languages are helpful only as tools to achieve an end, such as being able to live, work, or do research in countries where operating in English is not an option. My casual conversations with parents of students and with officials of external sources of support, including government agencies and foundations, reveal a similarly limited view. This stance is as shortsighted as it is widespread among the people who make key decisions about resource allocation across disciplines and programs, and among those who pay for our students' education.

  大意:

  作者提出大部分人对于语言学习作用的浅显的理解,而后批评了这种理解。

  值得考生思考并分析的内容:

  作者提到的人们对于语言学习作用的理解,其实很有可能是我们读者的想法,我们会感觉到,哎,我就是这么想的啊,学英语就是为了工作生活啊,但当看到这种想法被用”conventional”, ”limited”和“shortsighted”这一类负面的词描述之后,读者不禁会想,我咋想错了呢?难道学外语还有别的意义?从而会继续focus on作者的论述,想知道作者在下文是如何给出学外语的意义的。

  第三段:We know from research and experience that acquiring another language makes students better problem solvers, unleashing their ability to identify problems, enriching the ways in which they search and process information, and making them aware of issues and perspectives that they would otherwise ignore. I have often observed that students with exposure to two or more languages and cultures are more creative in their thinking, especially when it comes to tackling complex problems that do not have clear solutions.

  大意:

  作者提出了学语言对于学习者的好处:改变思维。

  值得考生思考并分析的内容:

  读者读到这会发现,学外语可以提发现问题升解决问题的能力,可以提升处理信息的能力和思考能力。作者给出这些好处的目的是暗示读者,别觉得学外语仅仅是找工作或者出国的工具(这些事儿在之前的扎心的那一段段已被提到),学外语是会改变我们的大脑的!这会让读者有发现新大陆的感觉。

  第四段:Learners of languages, by exposing themselves to other cultures and institutional arrangements, are more likely to see differences of opinion and conflicts by approaching a problem from perspectives that incorporate the values and norms of others as well as their own. Knowledge of other languages also fosters tolerance and mutual understanding. Language learning is thus much more than becoming operational in an environment different than one's own. It is a powerful way of appreciating and respecting the diversity of the world.

  大意:

  作者提出了另一个学语言的好处:让我们兼收并蓄。

  值得考生思考并分析的内容:

  和上一段的感受差不多了,读者可以看到学语言的另一个好处:让我们考虑事情更全面更成熟,还是有发现新大陆的感觉。但除此之外,“incorporate the values and norms of others”、fosters tolerance、appreciating and respecting the diversity of the world.这些说法甚至会让读者体会到外语学习是神圣的,因为学外语可以和一些高端的东西联系到一起:价值观、宽容、欣赏并尊重世界的多样性。

  在考试的时候,学员也可以说这三段链接的很好(are well connected),因为作者利用这三段在回击“把外语仅仅当成一门工具”这一想法,读完后两段,读者会意真真切切的意识到,“把外语仅仅当一门工具”这种想法确实有点”conventional”, ”limited”和“shortsighted”,因为学外语可以让我们思维更敏锐更具创造力,思想更成熟更文明。

  第五段:Another common misconception about the study of languages is that globalization has reduced the market value of most of them while increasing that of English, the lingua franca of business, science, and technology. According to that logic, students would be wise to invest their time and energy in other subjects once they have mastered spoken and written English. While it is true that major multinational companies use English at their most important meetings, I continue to come across case-based evidence indicating that if you work for a German, Japanese, Chinese, Swedish, or Brazilian company, you'd better speak the language of the home country, or you will be at a disadvantage when it comes to understanding the subtleties of decision-making and advancing your career. English proficiency may have become a necessary qualification for employment at most multinational organizations, but it is certainly not sufficient to pursue a successful professional career in an international context. The argument that the market value of the English language is increasing relative to the value of other languages, if pushed to its logical extreme, would present native English speakers with a false choice between allocating their energies to learning another language and focusing on other academic subjects.

  大意:

  作者回击了另一个错误的想法,他说我们不能觉得全球化导致英语地位的崛起,但会削弱其他语种的地位。作者说,你不好好学其他那些语种,你是会吃亏的。

  值得考生思考并分析的内容:

  作者在半段前半部分用了让步的方法,还是先说了大部分人的传统的想法,然后补充说仅仅这么想不对。

  而后作者带我们读者想象自己处在一种情景当中,而且作者用了“你”这个人称代词,这种手法让我们有身临其境的感觉,我们会更加真实的体验在小语种公司工作时候的场面。作者说:“比如你在什么德语日语汉语这样的国家工作,你不懂当地的语言,你很容易凉凉,因为你不懂公司决策力的那些潜台词和言外之意。”在作者的指引下我们会去想:哎我去,他说的对哈,这种时候好像不会当地的语言确实不行。”you will be at a disadvantage” 和”it is certainly not sufficient to pursue a successful professional career”这两个说法挺直击心灵的,我们读者读到这两个phrase,就相当于被人说“在职场你会吃亏的”或者“你想在职场玩得转这肯定不够”,生活中,谁要是对我们说这样的话,我们肯定会感到着急、担心,毕竟那是我们的前途和钱途。

  作者用“you”和”you’d better”这样的diction有很好的效果,我们读者会感觉到在和作者进行对话,这拉近了读者与作者之间的距离。

  第六段:Students who are serious about engaging in a demanding activity, whether learning to speak a language or play a musical instrument, are more motivated to learn other subjects. The language learner is undaunted by the difficulty of the task and eager to benefit from the discipline that language instruction offers. I teach sociology and management courses to undergraduate and graduate students. Those who have knowledge of languages other than English tend to perform better.

  大意:

  作者给出学外语的另一个好处,即,学外语的人往往很有斗志。

  值得考生思考并分析的内容:

  “are more motivated”, “undaunted(不会被吓到)”, “eager”, 这一类的词是对于外语学习者斗志昂扬和不畏艰辛的描述,作者借此向读者刻画外语学习者的美好形象,让人理解了学外语更多的意义,反对剥夺学生学外语的行为。

  作者用自己做老师时的经历作为例子,增加了文章的说服力和可信度。

  第七段:By undermining the importance of learning other languages, we are losing an opportunity to educate our students to be better citizens of the world, and failing to provide them with the tools and mind-set they need to understand and solve complex problems. Learning a language exercises the mind and enriches the spirit. It is a fundamentally humbling process by which students learn that their culture and way of expressing it are relative, not absolute. That perspective makes them more open to other points of view, and more likely to avoid one-size-fits-all solutions to the problems of the world.

  大意:

  作者总结了一下上文提到的学外语的各种原因。

  值得考生思考并分析的内容:

  这些原因全都罗列在一起的时候也挺震撼的,再次让读者意识到,有这么多我们没有想到的好处!


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