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SAT写作从逻辑入手拿高分

2018-06-21 12:11:54 来源:新东方SAT资料下载

  来源:新东方肖宇老师

  2015年SAT写作经过改革以后,从这三年的学生成绩分数统计来看,reading, analysis和writing中大家普遍分数相对低一点的就是analysis这一项(这一项是主要是关于reasoning逻辑推理的考查),这也是全球范围内SAT写作最普遍的分数排布情况。我甚至见过一些美国人教SAT写作,作为写作老师,考自己的母语考试,写作分数也是8/7/8,唯一没有满分的就是analysis一项。其实大家不必太过于苛求analysis的分数,本来写作就是一个主观科目,SAT写作又是评析性写作,类似于中国的阅读理解一样,就像咱们答高考语文,也同样很难在阅读理解上得到满分。每个人对于文章都有自己不同的理解,所以只要大家在SAT写作analysis上尽可能得到相对的高分——6分或者7分,加上其他两项相对好得分的reading和writing,那么整体分数就很乐观了。

  根据SAT写作考查方向来看,除了分析论据之外,我们必须还要关注阅读文章作者是如何“排兵布阵”,组织论据,证明论点的,也就是要分析阅读文章的论证方式。所以说,evidence论据解决的是“用什么来论证”的问题,而reasoning论证解决的则是“如何使用论据证明论点”的问题。一篇议论文,如果只是几个例子,数据,事实等论据简单陈述甚至是杂乱无章的列罗的话,那么读者也同样会一头雾水,不知所云,逻辑混乱,也不会接收到文章想要传达的最核心的内容。所以高质量的议论文必定会采用清晰的逻辑顺序,合理的结构安排,顺畅的行文思路来展开自己的论述。

  关于reasoning一项考查的最浅显的部分就是对于文章的结构把握,常见的议论文逻辑结构有:

  Pattern 1 Definition

  (1) add to the definition by offering specific examples;

  (2) provide information about history, location, context, or usage;

  (3) explain how the term differs from a similar word or phrase;

  (4) further define the key term by introducing its antonym, or term opposite in meaning.

  Pattern 2 Comparison and Contrast

  (1) With the help of comparison, authors can help readers better understand the things being compared. For example, comparing something abstract with something concrete and familiar may help readers easily know the former.

  (2) With the help of contrast, authors will be able to emphasize something effectively by putting it in front of its opposite. For example, by putting the beautiful and the ugly, or the good and the evil together, an author can easily convince readers the beauty or kindness of a person.

  Pattern 3 Cause and Effect

  The process of explaining how an event leads to or produces another is the pattern of cause and effect. In this pattern, if A leads to B, A is called the cause while B the effect. The pattern of cause and effect, when used, helps readers to have a clear understanding of not only what happens or what happens first, but more importantly why something happens, which is essential for knowing about an event.

  Pattern 4 Time Order

  Writers use the process pattern to tell their readers how something works, happens, or develops.

  (1) describe what made a particular span of time eventful or memorable, making people realize the significance or influence of something;

  (2) chart the career of an important figure, helping readers to have a better understanding of the person discussed;

  (3) explain how some theory, invention, or activity came to be part of culture or history, building a general background for readers or to help them realize the significance of them.

  Pattern 5 classifications

  In the classification pattern, the order of the supporting details is also not important. However, there is a critical difference between simple listing and classification. Paragraphs relying on the classification pattern always make the same point: They tell the reader how some larger group can be broken down into smaller subgroups, or classes, each with its own defining set of characteristics. The use of classification patterns can help readers to understand easier abstract or complicated concepts, ideas, or events.

  关于逻辑推理考查的比较深刻的部分就是对于原阅读文章逻辑行文走向的考查,所以除了上面提到的一种相对简单的reasoning之外,大家如果想在reasoning这项再获取更多分数的话,就要对文章的句子和句子之间的逻辑,段落和段落之间的逻辑分析的越细致越全面越好。而这个能力不是一朝一夕能练成的,需要大家进行大量的高质量的阅读地道的议论文才能慢慢提高,这也是reasoning为什么难得分的原因。另外,我还建议大家在考试的时候也可以适当的用自己习惯的符号或者批注的方式进行细致的标注,这样你会对这篇文章的逻辑做到一目了然。下面我给大家选择了一篇文章,同时为大家进行了更细致的逻辑分析,大家可以以这个作为参考。请大家读文章的时候仔细体会下旁边的小字部分内容。这就是对于这篇阅读文章最细致的逻辑推理的分析。第二页继续....

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