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2018年5月5日亚太SAT写作实例解析附范文

2018-07-09 16:40:00 来源:新东方SAT资料下载

  2018年5月5日的SAT写作题目是Give the Data to the People,作者的观点是临床数据需要公开共享。话题本身看似可能有背景知识,但文章本身并未触及背景知识,考生并不需要背景知识来解读文章。整篇文章文本和结构相对简单,考点比较明显。相对三月的题目,情感没有那么充沛,相对更加冷静客观,在文章结尾处有颂扬和倡导的pathos可以分析,文章一个重点难点的位置在第五段于下文的关系。

  来源:新东方 李科

  题目解析

  Give the Data to the People

  LAST week, Johnson & Johnson announced that it was making all of its clinicaltrial data available to scientists around the world. It has hired my group,Yale University Open Data Access Project, or YODA, to fully oversee the releaseof the data. Everything in the company's clinical research vaults, including unpublished raw data, will be available for independent review.

  开门见山直接交代事由进入主题。

  This is an extraordinary donation to society, and a reversal of the industry'straditional tendency to treat data as an asset that would lose value if exposed to public scrutiny.

  这件事的两面性:“对社会突出的贡献”和“失去价值”

  Today, more than half of the clinical trials in theUnited States, including many sponsored by academic and governmental institutions, are not published within two years of their completion. Often they are never published at all. The unreported results, not surprisingly, are often those in which a drug failed to perform better than a placebo. As aresult, evidence-based medicine is, at best, based on only some of the evidence. One of the most troubling implications is that full information on a drug's effects may never be discovered or released.

  时间出现在段首,基本上是现状描述(或者今昔对比)。本段交代了背景:原本这是数据是机密的。以及这个状态下,保密数据和信息带来的负面结果。本段是分析Reasoning 的重要环节。

  Even when studies are published, the actual data are usually not made available. Endusers of research — patients, doctors and policy makers — are implicitly toldby a single group of researchers to “take our word for it.” They are often forced to accept the report without the prospect of other independent scientists’ reproducing the findings — a violation of a central tenet of the scientific method.

  进步补充,很多研究成果公布但是数据依旧保密的情况系,影响用户的信息透明度,作者在本段继续强调负面结果,可以和上一段一起在reaosning中分析,都是重要的前提。本段额外注意一点“take our word for it.”和forced to accept这两处都向读者加强了如果不知道这些信息就很被动的感觉,可以视为pathos。

  To befair, the decision to share data is not easy. Companies worry that their competitors will benefit, that lawyers will take advantage, that incompetent scientists will misconstrue the data and come to mistaken conclusions.Researchers feel ownership of the data and may be reluctant to have others use it. So Johnson & Johnson, as well as companies like Glaxo Smith Kline and Medtronic that have made more cautious moves toward transparency, deserve much credit. The more we share data, however, the more we find that many of these problems fail to materialize.

  本段在全文逻辑中是让步,呈现问题两面性,作者思考非常全面,从三方面阐释了业界对公开数据的担忧:其一,作者承认可能对竞争对手有益;其二,对于那些资质不足的科学家可能会带来问题;其三,对于产权的所属者主观上不愿意。让步服务于主旨并体现作者的全面性,对于这三种担忧,作者马上补充两个公司的例子说明实践中数据公开这些问题就会发生。本段的让步和例子都是考生必须分析的考点。

  In2011, YODA struck a deal with Medtronic to release all the data on one of its products — a device that stimulates the production of bone. At the time,questions had been raised about the device’s safety, including whether itcaused cancer, and about the conflicts of interests of some of the company'sresearchers. Medtronic made the unusual decision to respond to the debate by releasing the device's data for independent review. We commissioned and then published two independent reviews of the data, and now have made them globally available.

  这个段落作者通过例子(Medtronic)来解释如果通过公开数据来解决公司所担忧的问题。

  Interestingly,the reviews produced somewhat conflicting results. One found that the device was no better than a bone graft and might be associated with a slight increasein cancer, while the other found that the device was effective and the cancer risk inconclusive. To us these differences reinforce the value of open science:now the data are out there for further study.

  针对上一段的的例子,作者继续陈述两种同的看法,并强调自己的观点。

  This program doesn't mean that just anyone can gain access to the data without disclosing how they intend to use it. We require those who want the data to submit a proposal and identify their research team, funding and any conflictsof interest. They have to complete a short course on responsible conduct andsign an agreement that restricts them to their proposed research question. Most important, they must agree to share whatever they find. And we exclude applicants who seek data for commercial or legal purposes. Our intent is not to be tough gatekeepers, but to ensure that the data are used in a transparent way and contribute to overall scientific knowledge.

  通过强调数据不会被滥用来打消顾虑,呼应第五段的顾虑,号召公开数据。

  Thereare many benefits to this kind of sharing. It honors the contributions of the subjects and scientists who participated in the research. It is proof that an organization, whether it is part of industry or academia, wants to play a roleas a good global citizen. It demonstrates that the organization has nothing to hide. And it enables scientists to use the data to learn new ways to help patients. Such an approach can even teach a company like Johnson & Johnsonsomething it didn't know about its own products.

  本段主要颂扬分享精神,属于Persuade element部分考点中的 pahtos,从普通读者角度是分享精神有益于社会有益于个人充满期待。同时,这也可以从公司或者科研工作者的角度写appeal to ethic指出这是一种使命与责任。本段比较容易发现也比较容易处理,建议考生能够深挖或者是两个角度都分析。

  For the good of society, this is a breakthrough that should be replicated throughout the research world.

  综述 第二页继续...

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