1. Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same, all patients receiving hearts or other organs must take antirejection drugs for the rest of their lives.
(A) Unlike transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same
(B) Besides transplants involving identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(C) Unless the transplant involves identical twins who have the same genetic endowment
(D) Aside from a transplant between identical twins with the same genetic endowment
(E) Other than transplants between identical twins, whose genetic endowment is the same
2. In one of the most stunning reversals in the history of marketing, the Coca-Cola company in July 1985 yielded to thousands of irate consumers demanding that it should bring back the original Coke formula.
(A) demanding that it should
(B) demanding it to
(C) and their demand to
(D) who demanded that it
(E) who demanded it to
3. Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.
(A) rather than developing independently from
(B) rather than a type that developed independently from
(C) rather than a type whose development was independent of
(D) instead of developing independently from
(E) instead of a development that was independent of
4. Efforts to equalize the funds available to school districts, a major goal of education reformers and many states in the 1970's, has not significantly reduced the gaps existing between the richest and poorest districts.
(A) has not significantly reduced the gaps existing
(B) has not been significant in reducing the gap that exists
(C) has not made a significant reduction in the gap that exists
(D) have not significantly reduced the gap that exists
(E) have not been significant in a reduction of the gaps existing
5. Most state constitutions now mandate that the state budget be balanced each year.
(A) mandate that the state budget be balanced
(B) mandate the state budget to be balanced
(C) mandate that the state budget will be balanced
(D) have a mandate for a balanced state budget
(E) have a mandate to balance the state budget
Answer to Question 1
In A and B, the phrases beginning Unlike... and Besides... modify patients, the subject of the main clause; thus A absurdly states that Unlike transplants ..., patients... must take ... drugs, and B that all patients except for transplants... must take ... drugs. In B and D the expression identical twins with the same genetic endowment wrongly suggests that only some identical twin pairs are genetically identical. In E, the construction Other than transplants..., all patients ... must take... drugs illogically suggests, as in B, that some patients are transplants. Choice C, the best answer, solves these problems by using a clause introduced by Unless to describe the exception to the rule and a nonrestrictive clause beginning with who to describe the characteristic attributed to all identical twins.
Answer to Question 2
Choice D, the best answer, uses the grammatically correct expression demanded that it bring back, in which demanded that it is followed by the subjunctive verb bring. Choice A incorrectly uses should bring rather than bring: demanding that already conveys the idea of "should," and at any rate a modal auxiliary verb, such as should or must, cannot grammatically follow the expression demanded that. Similarly, B and E use the ungrammatical expression demanding/demanded it to. In C, the expression yielded to... customers and their demand to bring... unnecessarily states that the company yielded to the customers as well as to their demand. This expression also fails to specify that the company is expected to bring back the original formula.
Answer to Question 3
Choice B, the best answer, correctly uses the construction mammals ... are a branch... rather than a type, in which the terms compared by rather than are grammatically parallel nouns. Choices A and D fail to parallel branch with another noun, instead following rather than or instead o/with the verb phrase developing independently from.... In C, the expression a type whose development was independent of a common ancestor states the opposite of the original point_that the type of mammal mentioned was thought to have developed independently of the main stem of mammalian evolution, but still to have descended from a common ancestor. Choice E repeats the error of C, further straying from the intended meaning by referring to the type as a development.
Answer to Question 4
In A, B, and C, the singular auxiliary verb has does not agree with the plural subject of the sentence, Efforts. In addition, B and C are wordy; significantly reduced will suffice here. Choice E uses a similarly wordy expression that changes the meaning of the sentence, stating not that the efforts have significantly reduced the gap but that they failed to play a significant role in some already-existing reduction of several gaps. Choice D, the best answer, is grammatically correct, clear, and concise.
Answer to Question 5
When mandate is used as a verb to mean "make it mandatory,' it must be followed by that and a verb in the subjunctive mood, as in A, the best answer: mandate that x be balanced. Choice B uses the ungrammatical mandate x to be balanced. Choice C inappropriately uses the future indicative, will be, rather than the subjunctive. Choices D and E use wordy and imprecise expressions in place of the verb mandate: neither have a mandate for a balanced... budget nor have a mandate to balance the ... budget makes clear that the requirement is made by the constitution. It is also unclear in D whether each year refers to the mandating or the balancing.
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