2020-10-10 08:54:00来源:网络


  1 .逗号-----请遵循以下 4 大规则:

  1). 用逗号分开系列成分。如果有 2 个以上相同成分,则应用逗号分开;例如:

  My recipe for buttermilk biscuits contains flour, soda and buttermilk.

  2). 使用逗号来分开插入从句和短语;例如:

  Gordon, who is a writer by profession, bakes an excellent cheesecake.

  3). 在引导性分词或介词短语后使用逗号;例如:

  After the banquet, Harold and Martha went dancing.

  4). 利用逗号来分开连词连接的独立从句。例如:

  Susan’s old car has been belching blue smoke from the tailpipe for two weeks, but it has not broken down yet.

  2 .分号-----请遵循以下 2 大规则:

  1). 使用分号而不是并列连词来连接两个含义紧密的独立从句;例如:

  Whooping cranes are an endangered species; they are unlikely to survive if we continue to pollute.

  2). therefore 、 nevertheless 和 moreover 等词连接的独立从句可用分号隔开。例如:

  The staff meeting has been postponed until next Thursday; therefore, I will be unable to get approval for my project until then.

  3 .冒号-----请遵循以下 3 大规则:

  1). 在正式的写作中,冒号的作用仅在于表明其后是对前面所述内容的详细说明、定义、解释或过去发生事情的概述。冒号之前一般是独立从句,并且通常情况下有 as follows 、 the following 、 namely 或 like 等提示短语。例如:

  正确: Your instructions are as follows: read the passage carefully, answer the questions on the last page, and turn over your answer sheet.

  2). 动词和直接宾语间不要放冒号。例如:

  错误: I want: a slice of pizza and a small green salad.

  正确: This is what I want: A slice of pizza and a small green salad.

  3). 如果前后两句话有如上所述的紧密关系,即使没有上述表示这层关系的短语,也可使用冒号,并且在这种情况下,句号也可用。例如:

  正确: We were aghast: The “charming country inn” that had been advertised in such glowing terms proved to be a leaking cabin full of mosquitoes.

  4 .连字符号和破折号-----请遵循以下 7 大规则:

  1). 行末单词分开时使用连字符号。例如:

  正确: In this incredible canvas, the artist used only monochromatic elements.

  2). 表示 21-99 这些数字和用作形容词的分数时,使用连字符号。

  错误: A two thirds vote was necessary to carry the measure.

  正确: A two-thirds vote was necessary to carry the measure.

  3). 由前缀 ex 、 all 、 self 、 semi 或后缀 elect 构成的词语,前缀或后缀和主体之间应有连字符号。

  错误: The president elect was invited to chair the meeting.

  正确: The president-elect was invited to chair the meeting.

  4). 如果把复合形容词放在所修饰词语的前面,则该形容词各部分应由连字符号分开。

  正确: The no-holds-barred argument continued into the night.

  5). 专有名词或形容词前添加前缀,两部分应由连字符号隔开。例如:

  错误: His pro African sentiments were heartily applauded.

  正确: His pro-African sentiments were heartily applauded.

  6). 如果复合构词法构成的词语容易与其他词语混淆,或者导致元音字母相邻,则应用连字符号隔开。例如:

  错误: Most buildings in the ghost town are recreations of the original structures.

  正确: Most buildings in the ghost town are re-creations of the original structures.

  错误: She took an antiinflammatory drug for her sports injury.

  正确: She took an anti-inflammatory drug for her sports injury.

  7). 用破折号表明思路的突然变化。

  正确: To get a high score—and who doesn’t want to get a high score—you need to devote yourself to prolonged and concentrated study.

  5 .撇号-----请遵循以下 3 大规则:

  1). 表明动词缩写,但是在作文开始中应尽量避免缩写。

  2). 表明名词所有格。

  3). 代词都另有单词表示其所有格,比较特殊的是中性词 one ,其所有格为 one 加上撇号和 s 。



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